Crispin Smith is a researcher focusing on Iraqi security and law of armed conflict issues, and is a serving officer in the British Army Reserve. Any opinions expressed are his alone. Crispin has previously written on the Iraqi security forces and the status of ethnic minorities in Iraq and Syria. His 2018 Note in the Harvard International Law Journal, Independent Without Independence: The Iraqi-Kurdish Peshmerga in International Law, analyzed the legal status of the Kurdish security forces within Iraq. Crispin has led in-field research in Iraq’s disputed territories as a contractor for the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, with the public findings published under the title Wilting in the Kurdish Sun: The Hopes and Fears of Religious Minorities in Northern Iraq. He has also briefed officials at the U.S. State Department on issues relating to violations of international human rights law in Iraq and Syria. His latest manuscript, “Servants of Two Masters: the Risks Inherent in Iraq’s Hashd al-Sha’abi Legislation” provides new insights into recent legislative history behind Iraq’s Shi’ite militias, and will be published in the NYU Journal of International Law and Politics.