Morton H. Halperin is a Senior Advisor to the Open Society Foundations and the Open Society Policy Center. Dr. Halperin worked for many years for the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). He was Director of the Center for National Security Studies from 1975 to 1992; from 1984 to 1992 he was also the Director of the Washington Office of the ACLU. Dr. Halperin has testified more than 50 times before congressional committees on civil liberties issues. He served in the Clinton, Nixon and Johnson administrations, in the Defense and State Departments and on the staff of the National Security Council, most recently as Director of the Policy Planning Staff at the Department of State (1998-2001). He is the author of numerous books and articles on national security and civil liberties. including The Lawless State (1976) and Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy (2006).