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Though Labor Day has its roots in parades and celebrations held as early as 1882, S. 730 was passed in 1894, making Labor Day a federal holiday to be celebrated on the first Monday of September. The text of that statute is below.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the first Monday of September in each year, being the day celebrated and known as Labor’s Holiday, is hereby made a legal public holiday, to all intents and purposes, in the same manner as Christmas, the first day of January, the twenty-second day of February, the thirtieth day of May, and the fourth day of July are now made by law public holidays.
Approved, June 28, 1894.