Multiple Choice: Who Said This on Transparency and Targeted Killings Across State Borders?

Question: Who said this?

“While the U.S. regards attacks on terrorists being protected in the sovereign territory of other States as potentially justifiable when undertaken in self-defense, a State’s ability to establish the legality of such an action depends on its willingness openly to accept responsibility for the attack, to explain the basis for its action, and to demonstrate that reasonable efforts were made prior to the attack to convince the State whose territorial sovereignty was violated to prevent the offender’s unlawful activities from occurring. In such a situation, the State involved might have acted properly and might have sound reasons for its secret conduct. A State cannot act secretly and without public justification in its self-defense, however, and expect nonetheless to have its actions condoned by the world community.”

[a] Ken Roth, Executive Director of Human Rights Watch
[b] Navi Pillay, U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights
[c] Abe Sofaer, Legal Adviser of State Department (1985-1990)
[d] John Brennan, CIA Director (2013-present); Counterterrorism Czar (2009-2013)

Answer: …

 

 

 

 

 

[c] When he was the Legal Adviser of the Department of State, 1989
[citation: Waldemar A. Solf. Lecture in International Law, presented to The Judge Advocate General’s School of the Army, May 4, 1989] 

About the Author(s)

Ryan Goodman

Co-Editor-in-Chief of Just Security, Anne and Joel Ehrenkranz Professor of Law at New York University School of Law, former Special Counsel to the General Counsel of the Department of Defense (2015-2016). You can follow him on Twitter @rgoodlaw.